• Art Glass Resources, and some business information
  • Helpful hints and tips that we find online, in books and from our own personal experiences
  • Lots of great information for Stained Glass (Tiffany and Leaded), Lampworking, Fusing, Slumping, Glass Painting, Sandcarving, Mosaics and more
  • Lastly, HARRACH is pronounced, Hair - wreck

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Information on fusing recycled glass


Fusing Recycled Glass

Material:  Recycled Glass

Issue: It is very simple to fuse recycled container glass to make tiles and relief plaques.  However, information on raw material characteristics, temperature profiles, and operational issues has not been widely disseminated.

Best Practice: At temperatures considerably below melting, particles of metal, ceramics, or glass begin to bond through a process called sintering.  Sintering of soda-lime glass begins at about 1250° F. Sintering can be used to create solid glass objects by heating glass particles to above the sintering point and holding at that temperature until a dense body forms.

The basic steps are described below:

1)      Obtain a mold that will withstand temperatures of at least 1600° F.   Coat the mold with a release. Commercial “shelf paints” are available.  A mixture of 40% kaolin and 60% alumina hydrate also works well.
2)      Fill the mold with glass pieces. Glass of any size can be used.  However, the most consistent success has been obtained with glass that has been crushed to a uniform shape and screened to a size 16 mesh and finer.  There is a trade-off here between glass grain size and cleanliness.  It is easier to obtain a glassy, translucent product with larger grain sizes, but smaller grain sizes minimize contamination.
3)      Fire the kiln to fusing temperatures.  For green or amber container glass, the following schedule is a place to start:

      500°F/hour                                to 1100°F         
(organic contamination should be gone by this point)

      1000°F/hour                              to 1600°F                                    
(or go as fast as the kiln will rise)

      soak 5 minutes                          at 1600°F                  
(this is the critical time & temp – experiment)

      Natural cooling                          to 1020°F

      Soak 15 minutes                        at 1020°F           
(may need longer soak for thick or uneven pieces)

      70°F/hour                                  to 950°F

      Cool 300°F/hour                        to 250°F

      Open kiln to cool to ambient

Each kiln acts differently.  The maximum temperature that works best in a particular kiln may be anywhere from 1500 to 1600°F.  Fusing can also be done in cone kilns.  Fire at medium speed until organic burn-off then at maximum speed and try cone 010, 011, 012, and 013.  If the fused tiles have bubbles or bloat, it may mean that organics need more time to burn out, that other contamination is present.  Try soaking at 1100°F for 10 to 20 minutes.



Container glass “devitrifies” very easily.  This means that the glass changes from a glass back into a crystalline material, with two results: the glass takes on a matte finish; and it becomes much stiffer. Slower temperature profiles and long soaks appear to make devitrification worse.  A large amount of direct radiant heat (as from top-mounted heating elements) appears to promote devitrification, as well.

The best strategy for starting recycled glass fusing is to find a source of crushed glass that is reliable and consistent.  Then develop a matrix for an experiment.  Combine different colors and different grades, and fire with different ramping temperatures from 1450°F to 1600°F.  Most of the early experiments will fail, but patience will be rewarded.

Either side of the fused glass product can be chosen as the featured side.  The side exposed to the air will have a graceful “slump” and will probably be glossier than the other side.  The side that was in the mold can be made to take on any type of relief.

Virtually any clean glass can be fused at the right kiln temperatures.  Although making fused glass products as artwork or in small-scale production has been growing over the years, most artists and product developers have stayed away from using recycled glass because it is a more challenging material than some of the glass designed and manufactured for fusing, like Bullseye Glass.  However, some small businesses, like this one in Seattle, are successfully manufacturing glass tiles using this type of process.

Implementation: These instructions can be used with the Best Practice Permanent Molds for Fusing Glass to begin experimenting with glass fusing.

Benefits: This process is accessible to anyone with a ceramics kiln capable of 1600° F.

Application Sites: Crafts shops, small businesses.

Contact:  For more information about this Best Practice, contact CWC, mailto:info@cwc.org.

References:
Richerson, David W., Modern Ceramic Engineering - Properties, Processing, and Use in Design, Mercel Dekker, Inc., 1982.
For a general discussion of glass fusing and moldmaking:
Lundstrum, Boyce, Glass Casting and Moldmaking, Vitreous Press, 1989. The book is available on Amazon.com or from many ceramics and glass supply stores.
For more about issues related to glass devitrification, see CWC report Densification, Crystallization,

Issue Date / Update: April 2000

StumbleUpon

SEARCH FOR ART GLASS INFO!

Follow Our Blog

Google+ Followers

Blog Archive

These are some of our most popular subjects

50/50 solder (2) 60/40 solder (2) air bubbles (5) annealing (6) art glass (10) bead (8) beads (6) Borax (2) Boron Nitride spray (3) bottle (8) breaking glass (2) broken pane (2) Bullseye (5) came (2) carbide wheel cutter (2) casting (10) cement (10) chat (1) COE (11) color (2) compatible (3) compatible glass (4) contour fuse (2) copper (4) copper foil (7) crushed glass (3) cutting (8) cutting circles (2) cutting glass techniques (2) Dalle de Verre (2) dalles (3) design (7) devitrification (5) devitrification spray recipe (2) dichroic (10) Didymium glasses (2) digital controller (4) dots (4) drill hole in glass (3) Effetre (2) enamel (7) enamel paints (2) encase (3) epoxy (2) etching (5) Evenheat (4) faceted glass (3) fiber paper (7) fid (2) fire brick (4) fire polish (2) fire safety (2) firing schedule (26) flashed glass (2) flux (8) foil (7) frit (26) full fuse (6) furnace glass (3) fused glass (26) fusing (73) glass (33) glass bead (5) glass blowing (3) glass bottles (5) glass casting (9) glass clay (3) glass cutter (8) glass cutting (4) Glass Eye 2000 (2) glass kiln (10) glass painting (18) glass powder (6) glass rod (9) glass stain (3) glue (3) grinder (3) grinder bits (2) grout (2) hake brush (2) harrach glass (159) hot glass (6) hot head (3) how to set up a torch (2) jewelry (4) jewels (3) kiln (107) kiln furniture (3) kiln schedule (20) kiln shelf (3) kiln wash (15) kilns (7) lampwork (47) lampwork press (2) lampworking (8) lead came (11) lead knife (3) leaded glass (12) mandrels (4) mold (13) molds (17) Moretti (3) Morton System (3) mosaic (6) oxidation (1) pate de verre (5) patina (2) pattern (5) pattern bars (6) pendant (7) pot melt (5) powder (1) presses (3) Primo Primer (3) RampMaster II (2) reactive colors (2) recycled glass (9) reducing flame (2) repair (10) resist (6) restoration (3) reusche (5) safety (7) sandblasting (7) schedules (4) score glass (3) sheet glass (5) shelf paper (4) shelf primer (6) slumping (15) soft glass (4) solder (10) soldering iron (4) stained glass (22) stained glass window (7) steel mold (3) stringer (6) supplies (4) tack fuse (4) thermocouple (5) Tiffany (5) tools (5) torch (13) tutorial (76) video (89) wine bottle (16) YouTube (85)

Search tags from previous posts here!

104 coe (1) 220 volt (1) 50/50 solder (2) 60/40 solder (2) Aanraku Frit Maker (1) Aanraku Frit Sorter (1) abrasive (1) accent (1) acids (1) advertise (6) agreement (1) air bubbles (5) air compressor (2) aluminum oxide (1) android (1) annealing (6) aperature pour (1) app (1) Arrow Springs (1) art (3) art glass (10) ArtGlass Clay (1) artist (2) avatar (2) Banner (2) bar code scanner (1) Baroque (1) base metals (1) bead (8) bead door (1) bead release (1) bead release recipe (1) beads (6) beer bottle (4) bending glass (1) Bethlehem (1) Betta (1) betterstainedglass.com (1) bevels (1) bgartman (1) billet (1) billets (2) bisque (1) black (1) black backed foil (1) Blenko (1) blog (7) blogger (3) blowing (1) Bobcat (1) books (2) Borax (2) Boron Nitride spray (3) Borosilicate (1) bottle (8) bottle cutter (3) bottle glass (1) bottles (1) boxing (1) brass (1) brass frit (1) breakers (1) breaking glass (2) brick and mortar (1) broken pane (2) bronze (1) building owner (1) Bullseye (5) Bullseye powder (1) Bullseye reactive glass chart (1) business (6) business license (3) butterfly (1) buy (1) cabbage leaf mold (1) came (2) came bender (1) came saw (1) camera (1) candles (1) candy dishes (1) cane (1) Canterbury Cathedral (1) carbide wheel cutter (2) Carlisle (1) Cast-A-Cab Molds (1) casting (10) cathedral (1) Cathedral glass (1) Catspaw (1) Celsius (1) cement (10) cement recipe (1) ceramic kiln (1) ceramic mold (1) chain (1) change shop name (1) Chantal's stained glass (1) chat (1) Cheetah (1) Chestnut Ridge Designs (1) chunk glass (1) circle (3) clashing (1) clay (2) clean (1) cleaning copper (1) clove oil (2) cmc (1) CMC powder (1) coaster (1) Coatings by Sandburg (1) COE (11) COE testing card (2) cold polishing (1) color (2) color wheel (1) Colour de Verre molds (2) commercial (1) compatible (3) compatible glass (4) competition (1) compounds (1) confetti (1) conservation (1) contact paper (1) contour fuse (2) cookie cutters (1) cool (1) copper (4) copper backed foil (1) copper foil (7) copper foil mil (1) copper sulfate crystals (1) copper wire (1) cord (1) Corinabeads (1) Corning Museum of Glass (2) corporation (1) cracked pain (1) crackle glass (1) cracks (1) crafts (1) craigslist (1) Creative Paradise molds (1) Creator's Premium Bottle Cutter (1) Crowley (1) crushed glass (3) curdled (1) custom ceramic molds (1) cut outs (1) cutting (8) cutting bottles (3) cutting circles (2) cutting glass techniques (2) cutting oil (1) cutting square (1) Dalle de Verre (2) dalles (3) dam (1) Danielle Moore (1) decals (1) Delphi Glass (1) design (7) devitrification (5) devitrification spray recipe (2) dichroic (10) Dichroic Extract (1) Didymium glasses (2) digital controller (4) disk bead (1) display (1) disposal (1) distorted fused glass shape (1) domain (1) door (1) Dos and Don'ts (1) dots (4) dragon scale bead (1) drapery glass (2) draping (1) drawing (1) Dremel (2) drill hole in glass (3) drinking glasses (1) drop out ring (1) dust collector (1) dusts (1) dykes (1) earrings (1) Effetre (2) electric kiln (1) electric kiln sitter (1) electricity (1) element (2) elements (2) elmers rubber cement (1) enamel (7) enamel label (1) enamel paints (2) enameling (4) encase (3) encased (2) English Muffle (1) engrave (1) entrepreneur (4) epoxy (2) equipment (1) etching (5) Etsy (7) Etsy card reader (1) Evenheat (4) evenheat kiln (1) expenses (1) exposure (1) facebook (6) faceted glass (3) Fahrenheit (1) fan page (1) favorite item from the shop above you (1) feathered lampwork bead (1) feature your artwork (1) fiber board (2) fiber paper (7) fid (2) fire brick (4) fire polish (2) fire safety (2) firebrick (2) firing schedule (26) first firing (1) fit glass window to frame (1) flash (1) flashed glass (2) Flexi-Glass (2) float glass (1) floral former (2) flower (1) flower pots (2) flux (8) foil (7) foil shears (1) follower (1) following secrets (1) font (1) font generator (1) for sale (1) forum (1) Fracture and Streamer (1) frame (1) Frantz (1) free stained glass patterns (1) freeze and fuse (1) frit (26) frit casting (1) frit casting molds (1) frit crusher (1) frit sorter (1) front load (1) full fuse (6) fumes (1) furnace glass (3) fuse (2) Fuse It Test Card (1) fused (13) fused glass (26) fused glass decals (1) fused hearts (1) fused lamp (1) Fusemaster (1) fusible (2) fusing (73) fusing book (1) fusing medium (1) gain followers (2) garnet (1) general proprietorship (1) generator (1) gift (1) gigabytes (1) gingerbread man (1) Glaskolben (1) glass (33) glass bead (5) glass beads (3) glass blowing (3) glass bottles (5) glass burrs (1) glass casting (9) glass clay (3) glass cutter (8) glass cutting (4) glass cutting safety (2) Glass Eye 2000 (2) glass kiln (10) glass log (1) glass nippers (1) glass painting (18) glass powder (6) glass rod (9) glass saw (1) glass stain (3) glassline paint (1) glazing hammer (1) glue (3) Gluechip (1) goddess (1) google (1) grain (1) grinder (3) grinder bits (2) grinding glass (1) group (1) grout (2) grozing (1) Gryphon (1) Gryphon bandsaw (1) Gtt Cricket (1) gum arabic (1) haike brush (1) hake brush (2) Hakko (1) handkerchief mold (1) hang (1) hanging hook (1) Hanging Valley Art Glass (1) harra (1) harrach glass (159) harrachglass (2) hazardous waste (1) high firing (1) history (1) hobbies (1) holding agent (1) hollow bead (1) home made frit (2) home owners association (1) Horkover Glass (1) horseshoe nails (2) hot (1) hot glass (6) hot head (3) hot working (2) house sign (1) how to (2) how to clean (2) how to open a new store (1) how to set up a torch (2) HTML (2) IGGA (1) incompatible glass (1) info appearance (1) Inland (1) installation (2) insurance (1) internet (3) iPhone (1) IR damage (1) Iridescent (1) iridized (2) ivory (1) japan drier (1) jar (1) jars (1) Jennifer Geldard (1) jewelry (4) jewels (3) joist (1) jump ring (1) Kaiser Lee Board (1) Kalera Stratton (1) Katie Gee Designs (1) kiln (107) kiln book (1) kiln furniture (3) kiln lid (1) kiln repair (1) kiln schedule (20) kiln shelf (3) kiln wash (15) kilncasting (1) kilnformed (2) kilns (7) Knight Bullet (1) Kokomo (3) Kokomo glass (1) label (3) Lamberts (1) lamp (1) lampwork (47) Lampwork Etc. (3) lampwork press (2) lampworking (8) lampworking frit (1) landlord (1) LavaCloth (1) lavender oil (1) layout (1) lead (4) lead came (11) lead knife (3) lead nippers (1) lead shears (1) lead vise (1) leaded (1) leaded glass (12) lease (2) leaves (1) lids (1) limited liability company (1) limited liability partnership (1) limited partnership (1) linseed oil (1) liquid stringer (1) liquid stringer medium (1) Lisa Horkin (1) live (1) location (1) lost wax casting (1) Lynx (1) magazine (1) Magic Mender (1) mandrel size chart (1) mandrels (4) manual (2) manufacturers (1) market (1) marketing (1) measure (1) melting points (1) merchant service (1) metals (2) microwave (1) microwave kiln (2) minerals (2) mini phaser (1) mirror (1) mold (13) mold mix 6 (1) molds (17) Moretti (3) Morton board (3) Morton System (3) mosaic (6) mosaic history (1) mouth blown (2) MR-97 (1) Mr. Splash (2) Muff (1) Murano Italy (1) muriatic acid (1) Mustang Dawn (1) Naos (1) needle nose (1) negotiate (1) net (1) network (1) network team (1) neutral flame (1) neutrals (1) newspaper (1) NNN (1) no days liquid fusing adhesive (2) noodles (2) Nortel (1) nuggets (2) off mandrel (1) oil based (1) online (1) onsite (1) opalescent (1) opalescent glass (1) opaque glass (1) organizations (1) outlet (1) oval (1) oxidation (1) oxides (1) oxidizing flame (1) oxygen (2) oxygen concentrator (1) packaging (1) paint (3) panel (2) paradise paints (1) Paragon (2) parts (1) pate de verre (5) patina (2) pattern (5) pattern bars (6) pattern shears (1) patterns (3) Patty Gray mold (1) paypal (1) Pebeo (1) peep hole (1) pen (1) pencil grip (1) pendant (7) pendant mold (1) permits (1) petals (1) Peter McGrain (1) Phantom (1) photography (4) pine oil (1) Pinterest (1) Piranha (1) pistol grip (1) plaster (5) plastic beads (1) plating (1) Play Doh Fun Factory (1) pmc (1) pocket vase (1) poison (1) posts (3) pot drop (1) pot melt (5) powder (1) power cord (1) preparing kiln (1) presses (3) pressure blaster (1) pressure pot (1) pricing (1) primary colors (1) Primo Primer (3) printable (1) profile (2) program (3) programmable (2) propane (3) proper clothing (1) propylene glycol (1) psi (1) punty (1) purple (1) putty (2) putty recipe (1) pyrometer (3) qr (1) qr code (1) rain drops (1) raking (1) raku (1) ramp (1) rampmaster (2) RampMaster II (2) reactive colors (2) recipe (1) rectangle (1) recycle (5) recycled glass (9) Red Max (1) reduce air bubbles (1) reducing flame (2) reference (2) relay (2) rent (1) repair (10) residential (1) resin (1) resist (6) resources (1) restoration (3) retail (4) reusche (5) reverse painting (1) Rio Grande (2) rod (1) rod storage (1) rods (1) rondels (1) roulette tool (1) round bead (1) rubber (1) rubber cement (1) rubbing alcohol (1) running pliers (1) s hook (1) safety (7) safety glasses (3) Sairset (1) sand (1) sand blaster (4) sand blasting (5) sand carving (4) sandalwood amyris oil (1) sandblasting (7) Sandblasting abrasives (1) sander (1) saw (1) schedules (4) score glass (3) scoring glass (1) scrap glass (1) Scrap Master (1) screen printing (1) secondary colors (1) sections (1) secure server (1) Seed beads (1) segments (1) sell art work (1) sell crafts (1) service provider (1) serving plates (1) shapes (1) shards (1) sharpie marker (1) sheet glass (5) shelf melt (1) shelf paper (4) shelf posts (1) shelf primer (6) shipping (1) shop (1) shop announcement (1) shop languages (1) shop name (1) shop policies (1) shop profile (1) shop settings (1) shop title (1) sifter (1) silicon carbide (1) silicone mold (2) silicosis (2) silver (2) silver backed foil (1) silver foil (1) silver stain (2) silvered ivory (1) sink (1) sis (1) Skutt (3) slump (8) slumping (15) Slumpy's (3) small business (3) snowman (1) social media (3) soda lime glass (2) soft glass (4) software (3) solder (10) soldering iron (4) sole proprietorship (1) spectrum (1) Spectrum system 96 (2) Squeegee Oil (1) St. Just (1) stained glass (22) stained glass painting (1) stained glass pattern books (2) stained glass patterns (2) stained glass studio (1) stained glass window (7) stainless steel mold (4) stains (1) stamps (4) steel mold (3) steel pipe (1) Steider Studios (1) Steider Studios Glass Medium (1) stemware (1) stencil (3) stepping stone (1) store (3) straight edge (1) stretch lead (1) stringer (6) stringers (1) strip cutters (1) striped (2) stripes (1) stud (1) studio (5) stumbleupon (1) styrofoam (1) sugar skulls (1) supplies (4) surface tension (1) swiss cheese (1) System 96 (2) tack fuse (4) target audience (1) team (2) temperature (1) temperature controlled iron (1) temperature controller (2) temperature converter (1) tempered glass (1) template (2) tertiary colors (1) text (1) texture (2) texture molds (1) textured glass (2) THE Networking Team (2) thermal shock (1) thermocouple (5) thick glass (2) Thompson Enamels (1) threads (1) Tiffany (5) tile (1) tools (5) top load (2) torch (13) torches (3) tourists (1) tracing black (1) tracing stained glass window (1) traditional (1) traffic (1) transparency (2) transparent (1) transparent glass (1) triangle (2) triple (1) trouble shoot (2) TTV photography (1) turpentine (1) tutorial (76) tweet (2) twisted cane (1) twisties (2) twisty (1) Twitter (7) twitter secrets (1) twitter tools (1) TypePad (1) unfollower (1) Universal Mold Coat (1) upcycled glass (1) Uroboros (2) Vanilla Shell (1) ventilation (1) venting (1) vermiculite board (1) Vetrofond (1) video (89) vinegar (1) vinyl (2) viscosity (1) Vitri-Fusaille (1) Vitrigel Glass Medium (1) voltage (1) volume (1) walnut shells (1) Wasser glass (1) water jet (1) wavy bead (1) waxing (1) Wayback Machine (1) weave glass (1) weave mold (1) webpage (2) webpage development (1) webpages (1) website (1) weight (1) Weller (1) wet packing (1) wet tile saw (1) Whale Firebird (1) white (1) whiting (2) wholesalers (1) wide heart (1) widget (2) wigwag (1) window (1) window display (1) window glass (1) windows (1) wine bottle (16) wine stopper (1) wordpress (1) woven (1) yellow pages (1) Youghiogheny glass (1) YouTube (85) Zephyr ring saw (1) zinc (2) zinc came (2) zoning (2) Zoozii's (1)
By Harrach Glass ©, 2015. Powered by Blogger.
 

blogger templates | Make Money Online