• Art Glass Resources, and some business information
  • Helpful hints and tips that we find online, in books and from our own personal experiences
  • Lots of great information for Stained Glass (Tiffany and Leaded), Lampworking, Fusing, Slumping, Glass Painting, Sandcarving, Mosaics and more
  • Lastly, HARRACH is pronounced, Hair - wreck

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Kiln Secrets, getting to know the types of units, and what to purchase

by Glass Fusing Made Easy


Everyone should check out Glass Fusing Made Easy's webpage, it is wonderful and full of valuable glass art information.

A glass kiln is an oven used for the glass fusing techniques. This is the most expensive item of all the fusing supplies. They come in a variety of sizes and shapes.


If you are looking to purchase a kiln, check out the great table top units at Delphi Glass - Art Glass Tools & Supplies. These are fantastic for fusing at home as they run on your household current.


They are usually lined with fire brick, which maintains the heat, and can support the objects being heated. The size is an important factor, because it limits the quantity and size of items that can be fired at one time. There are many parts to this heating unit.


Long ago, objects were fired in an open fire. The heat could not be measured or regulate, and the effects of a direct flame made it unmanageable. Over time, it was found that if objects were fired in an enclosed space, like a brick oven, you could achieve a higher degree of heat, and a slower cooling of objects. Glass has seen a rebirth in the past few years. It is used as a building material, a surface to paint on, engraved, cut, blown, slumped and fused.


Before purchasing, figure out the size that will fit your individual firing needs, whether you want a manual or a programmable unit , and find out what type of warranty comes with this appliance. Ask where and how you will get repairs done. What parts of the unit are replaceable and where you can purchase these parts.


Once the unit has been purchased, get to know your firing kiln . This will come in handy in any future firings.




Glass vs Ceramic Glass ovens heat single layers from the top, while ceramic units heat multiple layers from the side. Most glass projects are relatively flat, and with the heat radiating from the top, the entire face of the glass receives heat at the same time.


This helps to keep the temperature differences within the glass uniform and helps to prevent cracking. You can still obtain these uniform heating results in a ceramic oven by slowing down the firing.


An electric unit is the best for working with glass. The temperature can be regulated and controlled. They are also quiet, safe to operate, easy to handle, and fairly inexpensive to operate.


There are numerous types of electric units on the market, in a variety of sizes and accessories. These ovens are usually insulated, so there is very minimum external heat, and with no or very little fire hazard.


What Size to Purchase: Make a decision on how large the items are that you are going to make, that will help you decide the size to purchase. Find out the internal dimensions and external dimensions you need for the size of your desired projects. If you are going to use larger molds, will you have to fire on the bottom of the unit?


You need at least 12 inches clearance around the outside, so figure out where you are going to place it and make sure it will fit in this area.




Front load vs Top load:  A front loading firing kiln is great if you are going to be removing items from the unit while they are hot. This is great if you are planning on doing any enameling.


A top loading kiln has either a hinged lid or one that can be lifted off with handles and removed completely. This is most commonly used for glass fusing.


Electrical Outlets: Know your electrical outlets. If you are glass fusing at home, then you will want a kiln that uses standard 120 volt, 13 amp household current.


You don’t want to have to do any rewiring to your home. It should have a three-prong plug and about an eight foot power cord.


Manual or Programmable: A manual oven has an on/off switch and a dial to adjust the temperature. There is small light to show that the unit is on and operating. They come with a pyrometer so the inside temperature is shown at all times. A thermocouple runs from the pyrometer into the oven. It should protrude into the firing chamber about one inch. Remember, the pyrometer will read the temperature where the tip of the thermocouple wire is, so put it near your shelf. These are not that difficult to use and don’t require that much more time or effort than a programmable unit .


Keep records of your firing. At first, set your timer for every 15 minutes, so you can see the rate of temperature for your particular unit. Keep records of the particular rates of temperature climb with each digit on your dial. Records will help you determine what works and what doesn’t work with each firing. Make detailed records of the total time it took from the start of your firing, to when you reached your desired temperature.


These records will help you in future firings. Then in the future, you can set your alarm to go off just before you know your oven should be at a particular temperature, instead of having to check it every 15 minutes or so. Always unplug your kiln when you are finished firing. Be sure to set an alarm clock to remind you when switches should be changed.







Brick or Ceramic Fiber: Firebricks are used as insulation in a brick oven. They heat more quickly and retain heat longer. These are great for glass fusing and annealing. More maintenance is needed because of the delicate nature of the fire bricks. The heating coils are placed in grooves in the fire bricks. If these coils should ever bulge out, they must be pushed back into place. 


A ceramic fiber oven stays clean and is easier to maintain. The heating elements of these units are not exposed, because they are molded into the walls.


Kiln Safety: Even though a kiln will fire to a higher temperature than a stove, the area around the unit is surprisingly cool during firing. Glass kilns are well built and don't radiate a lot of area heat.


For safety purposes, the unit should not be placed within a minimum of 12 to 18 inches of any other object. It is recommended that the unit be placed on a flame retardant flooring. Some place the kiln on a stand on a flame resistant cement floor or fire board.


Be careful when opening the lid while the unit is at a high temperature. The heat will escape and rise. If you have low ceilings, cabinets, shelves, or other objects close by the heat will hit these items and could start a fire.


Always use common sense on what you have near or around the kiln. Be aware of where the heat goes when opening the lid during firing. If opening the lid while doing procedures like raking, etc. always unplug the unit before proceeding with the process.


Make sure that the power circuits are up to supplying the kiln. If there is a question about the supply, have an electrician check things out.


Furniture:  The furniture consists of a shelf and shelf supports. These items are made of a highly refractory fire clay. The shelf material is quite strong, and should fit your particular unit. There should be about 1 inch of clearance between the shelf and the wall of the oven.


Furniture is inexpensive, easily available, and can be used over and over again. The shelf needs to be protected with either a wash, or fiber paper.


Care and Maintenance:  When you first make your purchase, keep all the packaging material. If the unit needs to be sent back for repairs or replacement, you will be happy that you kept the original box and packaging materials. You first need to prepare the kiln and shelf for firing. Then you will be ready for a first firing of a fused glass project.


Use the shelf and posts. Having your items on these shelves allows air to circulate around your item and makes it easier to remove the shelf from the kiln. Place the shelf at least one inch below the thermocouple when firing.


Use protection on your oven and shelf. The unit needs to be coated with a wash. When coating the unit, it doesn't matter which wash you apply, just be sure to mix it about twice as thick as you would if you were using it to coat the shelves. Avoid getting any wash on the elements . Reapply the wash every few years. The shelf can be protected with either a wash or fiber paper.


Repairing coils might seem like a tedious task. See how simply this can be done without having to send your unit out for repair.


Periodically check and clean your thermocouple. This can be done using a damp cloth before firing your piece. Also check the position each time you start to fire. Try to avoid hitting the thermocouple with the kiln shelf, as it can be broken and damaged.


Check for any dust on the floor of your unit. Vacuum if necessary. Dust can react with the color elements in your glass and result in foggy or burnt colors.


For a small and inexpensive oven, try purchasing one that you can fire in the microwave . These are very limited in use and applications.


StumbleUpon

SEARCH FOR ART GLASS INFO!

Follow Our Blog

Google+ Followers

Blog Archive

These are some of our most popular subjects

50/50 solder (2) 60/40 solder (2) air bubbles (5) annealing (6) art glass (10) bead (8) beads (6) Borax (2) Boron Nitride spray (3) bottle (8) breaking glass (2) broken pane (2) Bullseye (5) came (2) carbide wheel cutter (2) casting (10) cement (10) chat (1) COE (11) color (2) compatible (3) compatible glass (4) contour fuse (2) copper (4) copper foil (7) crushed glass (3) cutting (8) cutting circles (2) cutting glass techniques (2) Dalle de Verre (2) dalles (3) design (7) devitrification (5) devitrification spray recipe (2) dichroic (10) Didymium glasses (2) digital controller (4) dots (4) drill hole in glass (3) Effetre (2) enamel (7) enamel paints (2) encase (3) epoxy (2) etching (5) Evenheat (4) faceted glass (3) fiber paper (7) fid (2) fire brick (4) fire polish (2) fire safety (2) firing schedule (26) flashed glass (2) flux (8) foil (7) frit (26) full fuse (6) furnace glass (3) fused glass (26) fusing (73) glass (33) glass bead (5) glass blowing (3) glass bottles (5) glass casting (9) glass clay (3) glass cutter (8) glass cutting (4) Glass Eye 2000 (2) glass kiln (10) glass painting (18) glass powder (6) glass rod (9) glass stain (3) glue (3) grinder (3) grinder bits (2) grout (2) hake brush (2) harrach glass (159) hot glass (6) hot head (3) how to set up a torch (2) jewelry (4) jewels (3) kiln (107) kiln furniture (3) kiln schedule (20) kiln shelf (3) kiln wash (15) kilns (7) lampwork (47) lampwork press (2) lampworking (8) lead came (11) lead knife (3) leaded glass (12) mandrels (4) mold (13) molds (17) Moretti (3) Morton System (3) mosaic (6) oxidation (1) pate de verre (5) patina (2) pattern (5) pattern bars (6) pendant (7) pot melt (5) powder (1) presses (3) Primo Primer (3) RampMaster II (2) reactive colors (2) recycled glass (9) reducing flame (2) repair (10) resist (6) restoration (3) reusche (5) safety (7) sandblasting (7) schedules (4) score glass (3) sheet glass (5) shelf paper (4) shelf primer (6) slumping (15) soft glass (4) solder (10) soldering iron (4) stained glass (22) stained glass window (7) steel mold (3) stringer (6) supplies (4) tack fuse (4) thermocouple (5) Tiffany (5) tools (5) torch (13) tutorial (76) video (89) wine bottle (16) YouTube (85)

Search tags from previous posts here!

104 coe (1) 220 volt (1) 50/50 solder (2) 60/40 solder (2) Aanraku Frit Maker (1) Aanraku Frit Sorter (1) abrasive (1) accent (1) acids (1) advertise (6) agreement (1) air bubbles (5) air compressor (2) aluminum oxide (1) android (1) annealing (6) aperature pour (1) app (1) Arrow Springs (1) art (3) art glass (10) ArtGlass Clay (1) artist (2) avatar (2) Banner (2) bar code scanner (1) Baroque (1) base metals (1) bead (8) bead door (1) bead release (1) bead release recipe (1) beads (6) beer bottle (4) bending glass (1) Bethlehem (1) Betta (1) betterstainedglass.com (1) bevels (1) bgartman (1) billet (1) billets (2) bisque (1) black (1) black backed foil (1) Blenko (1) blog (7) blogger (3) blowing (1) Bobcat (1) books (2) Borax (2) Boron Nitride spray (3) Borosilicate (1) bottle (8) bottle cutter (3) bottle glass (1) bottles (1) boxing (1) brass (1) brass frit (1) breakers (1) breaking glass (2) brick and mortar (1) broken pane (2) bronze (1) building owner (1) Bullseye (5) Bullseye powder (1) Bullseye reactive glass chart (1) business (6) business license (3) butterfly (1) buy (1) cabbage leaf mold (1) came (2) came bender (1) came saw (1) camera (1) candles (1) candy dishes (1) cane (1) Canterbury Cathedral (1) carbide wheel cutter (2) Carlisle (1) Cast-A-Cab Molds (1) casting (10) cathedral (1) Cathedral glass (1) Catspaw (1) Celsius (1) cement (10) cement recipe (1) ceramic kiln (1) ceramic mold (1) chain (1) change shop name (1) Chantal's stained glass (1) chat (1) Cheetah (1) Chestnut Ridge Designs (1) chunk glass (1) circle (3) clashing (1) clay (2) clean (1) cleaning copper (1) clove oil (2) cmc (1) CMC powder (1) coaster (1) Coatings by Sandburg (1) COE (11) COE testing card (2) cold polishing (1) color (2) color wheel (1) Colour de Verre molds (2) commercial (1) compatible (3) compatible glass (4) competition (1) compounds (1) confetti (1) conservation (1) contact paper (1) contour fuse (2) cookie cutters (1) cool (1) copper (4) copper backed foil (1) copper foil (7) copper foil mil (1) copper sulfate crystals (1) copper wire (1) cord (1) Corinabeads (1) Corning Museum of Glass (2) corporation (1) cracked pain (1) crackle glass (1) cracks (1) crafts (1) craigslist (1) Creative Paradise molds (1) Creator's Premium Bottle Cutter (1) Crowley (1) crushed glass (3) curdled (1) custom ceramic molds (1) cut outs (1) cutting (8) cutting bottles (3) cutting circles (2) cutting glass techniques (2) cutting oil (1) cutting square (1) Dalle de Verre (2) dalles (3) dam (1) Danielle Moore (1) decals (1) Delphi Glass (1) design (7) devitrification (5) devitrification spray recipe (2) dichroic (10) Dichroic Extract (1) Didymium glasses (2) digital controller (4) disk bead (1) display (1) disposal (1) distorted fused glass shape (1) domain (1) door (1) Dos and Don'ts (1) dots (4) dragon scale bead (1) drapery glass (2) draping (1) drawing (1) Dremel (2) drill hole in glass (3) drinking glasses (1) drop out ring (1) dust collector (1) dusts (1) dykes (1) earrings (1) Effetre (2) electric kiln (1) electric kiln sitter (1) electricity (1) element (2) elements (2) elmers rubber cement (1) enamel (7) enamel label (1) enamel paints (2) enameling (4) encase (3) encased (2) English Muffle (1) engrave (1) entrepreneur (4) epoxy (2) equipment (1) etching (5) Etsy (7) Etsy card reader (1) Evenheat (4) evenheat kiln (1) expenses (1) exposure (1) facebook (6) faceted glass (3) Fahrenheit (1) fan page (1) favorite item from the shop above you (1) feathered lampwork bead (1) feature your artwork (1) fiber board (2) fiber paper (7) fid (2) fire brick (4) fire polish (2) fire safety (2) firebrick (2) firing schedule (26) first firing (1) fit glass window to frame (1) flash (1) flashed glass (2) Flexi-Glass (2) float glass (1) floral former (2) flower (1) flower pots (2) flux (8) foil (7) foil shears (1) follower (1) following secrets (1) font (1) font generator (1) for sale (1) forum (1) Fracture and Streamer (1) frame (1) Frantz (1) free stained glass patterns (1) freeze and fuse (1) frit (26) frit casting (1) frit casting molds (1) frit crusher (1) frit sorter (1) front load (1) full fuse (6) fumes (1) furnace glass (3) fuse (2) Fuse It Test Card (1) fused (13) fused glass (26) fused glass decals (1) fused hearts (1) fused lamp (1) Fusemaster (1) fusible (2) fusing (73) fusing book (1) fusing medium (1) gain followers (2) garnet (1) general proprietorship (1) generator (1) gift (1) gigabytes (1) gingerbread man (1) Glaskolben (1) glass (33) glass bead (5) glass beads (3) glass blowing (3) glass bottles (5) glass burrs (1) glass casting (9) glass clay (3) glass cutter (8) glass cutting (4) glass cutting safety (2) Glass Eye 2000 (2) glass kiln (10) glass log (1) glass nippers (1) glass painting (18) glass powder (6) glass rod (9) glass saw (1) glass stain (3) glassline paint (1) glazing hammer (1) glue (3) Gluechip (1) goddess (1) google (1) grain (1) grinder (3) grinder bits (2) grinding glass (1) group (1) grout (2) grozing (1) Gryphon (1) Gryphon bandsaw (1) Gtt Cricket (1) gum arabic (1) haike brush (1) hake brush (2) Hakko (1) handkerchief mold (1) hang (1) hanging hook (1) Hanging Valley Art Glass (1) harra (1) harrach glass (159) harrachglass (2) hazardous waste (1) high firing (1) history (1) hobbies (1) holding agent (1) hollow bead (1) home made frit (2) home owners association (1) Horkover Glass (1) horseshoe nails (2) hot (1) hot glass (6) hot head (3) hot working (2) house sign (1) how to (2) how to clean (2) how to open a new store (1) how to set up a torch (2) HTML (2) IGGA (1) incompatible glass (1) info appearance (1) Inland (1) installation (2) insurance (1) internet (3) iPhone (1) IR damage (1) Iridescent (1) iridized (2) ivory (1) japan drier (1) jar (1) jars (1) Jennifer Geldard (1) jewelry (4) jewels (3) joist (1) jump ring (1) Kaiser Lee Board (1) Kalera Stratton (1) Katie Gee Designs (1) kiln (107) kiln book (1) kiln furniture (3) kiln lid (1) kiln repair (1) kiln schedule (20) kiln shelf (3) kiln wash (15) kilncasting (1) kilnformed (2) kilns (7) Knight Bullet (1) Kokomo (3) Kokomo glass (1) label (3) Lamberts (1) lamp (1) lampwork (47) Lampwork Etc. (3) lampwork press (2) lampworking (8) lampworking frit (1) landlord (1) LavaCloth (1) lavender oil (1) layout (1) lead (4) lead came (11) lead knife (3) lead nippers (1) lead shears (1) lead vise (1) leaded (1) leaded glass (12) lease (2) leaves (1) lids (1) limited liability company (1) limited liability partnership (1) limited partnership (1) linseed oil (1) liquid stringer (1) liquid stringer medium (1) Lisa Horkin (1) live (1) location (1) lost wax casting (1) Lynx (1) magazine (1) Magic Mender (1) mandrel size chart (1) mandrels (4) manual (2) manufacturers (1) market (1) marketing (1) measure (1) melting points (1) merchant service (1) metals (2) microwave (1) microwave kiln (2) minerals (2) mini phaser (1) mirror (1) mold (13) mold mix 6 (1) molds (17) Moretti (3) Morton board (3) Morton System (3) mosaic (6) mosaic history (1) mouth blown (2) MR-97 (1) Mr. Splash (2) Muff (1) Murano Italy (1) muriatic acid (1) Mustang Dawn (1) Naos (1) needle nose (1) negotiate (1) net (1) network (1) network team (1) neutral flame (1) neutrals (1) newspaper (1) NNN (1) no days liquid fusing adhesive (2) noodles (2) Nortel (1) nuggets (2) off mandrel (1) oil based (1) online (1) onsite (1) opalescent (1) opalescent glass (1) opaque glass (1) organizations (1) outlet (1) oval (1) oxidation (1) oxides (1) oxidizing flame (1) oxygen (2) oxygen concentrator (1) packaging (1) paint (3) panel (2) paradise paints (1) Paragon (2) parts (1) pate de verre (5) patina (2) pattern (5) pattern bars (6) pattern shears (1) patterns (3) Patty Gray mold (1) paypal (1) Pebeo (1) peep hole (1) pen (1) pencil grip (1) pendant (7) pendant mold (1) permits (1) petals (1) Peter McGrain (1) Phantom (1) photography (4) pine oil (1) Pinterest (1) Piranha (1) pistol grip (1) plaster (5) plastic beads (1) plating (1) Play Doh Fun Factory (1) pmc (1) pocket vase (1) poison (1) posts (3) pot drop (1) pot melt (5) powder (1) power cord (1) preparing kiln (1) presses (3) pressure blaster (1) pressure pot (1) pricing (1) primary colors (1) Primo Primer (3) printable (1) profile (2) program (3) programmable (2) propane (3) proper clothing (1) propylene glycol (1) psi (1) punty (1) purple (1) putty (2) putty recipe (1) pyrometer (3) qr (1) qr code (1) rain drops (1) raking (1) raku (1) ramp (1) rampmaster (2) RampMaster II (2) reactive colors (2) recipe (1) rectangle (1) recycle (5) recycled glass (9) Red Max (1) reduce air bubbles (1) reducing flame (2) reference (2) relay (2) rent (1) repair (10) residential (1) resin (1) resist (6) resources (1) restoration (3) retail (4) reusche (5) reverse painting (1) Rio Grande (2) rod (1) rod storage (1) rods (1) rondels (1) roulette tool (1) round bead (1) rubber (1) rubber cement (1) rubbing alcohol (1) running pliers (1) s hook (1) safety (7) safety glasses (3) Sairset (1) sand (1) sand blaster (4) sand blasting (5) sand carving (4) sandalwood amyris oil (1) sandblasting (7) Sandblasting abrasives (1) sander (1) saw (1) schedules (4) score glass (3) scoring glass (1) scrap glass (1) Scrap Master (1) screen printing (1) secondary colors (1) sections (1) secure server (1) Seed beads (1) segments (1) sell art work (1) sell crafts (1) service provider (1) serving plates (1) shapes (1) shards (1) sharpie marker (1) sheet glass (5) shelf melt (1) shelf paper (4) shelf posts (1) shelf primer (6) shipping (1) shop (1) shop announcement (1) shop languages (1) shop name (1) shop policies (1) shop profile (1) shop settings (1) shop title (1) sifter (1) silicon carbide (1) silicone mold (2) silicosis (2) silver (2) silver backed foil (1) silver foil (1) silver stain (2) silvered ivory (1) sink (1) sis (1) Skutt (3) slump (8) slumping (15) Slumpy's (3) small business (3) snowman (1) social media (3) soda lime glass (2) soft glass (4) software (3) solder (10) soldering iron (4) sole proprietorship (1) spectrum (1) Spectrum system 96 (2) Squeegee Oil (1) St. Just (1) stained glass (22) stained glass painting (1) stained glass pattern books (2) stained glass patterns (2) stained glass studio (1) stained glass window (7) stainless steel mold (4) stains (1) stamps (4) steel mold (3) steel pipe (1) Steider Studios (1) Steider Studios Glass Medium (1) stemware (1) stencil (3) stepping stone (1) store (3) straight edge (1) stretch lead (1) stringer (6) stringers (1) strip cutters (1) striped (2) stripes (1) stud (1) studio (5) stumbleupon (1) styrofoam (1) sugar skulls (1) supplies (4) surface tension (1) swiss cheese (1) System 96 (2) tack fuse (4) target audience (1) team (2) temperature (1) temperature controlled iron (1) temperature controller (2) temperature converter (1) tempered glass (1) template (2) tertiary colors (1) text (1) texture (2) texture molds (1) textured glass (2) THE Networking Team (2) thermal shock (1) thermocouple (5) thick glass (2) Thompson Enamels (1) threads (1) Tiffany (5) tile (1) tools (5) top load (2) torch (13) torches (3) tourists (1) tracing black (1) tracing stained glass window (1) traditional (1) traffic (1) transparency (2) transparent (1) transparent glass (1) triangle (2) triple (1) trouble shoot (2) TTV photography (1) turpentine (1) tutorial (76) tweet (2) twisted cane (1) twisties (2) twisty (1) Twitter (7) twitter secrets (1) twitter tools (1) TypePad (1) unfollower (1) Universal Mold Coat (1) upcycled glass (1) Uroboros (2) Vanilla Shell (1) ventilation (1) venting (1) vermiculite board (1) Vetrofond (1) video (89) vinegar (1) vinyl (2) viscosity (1) Vitri-Fusaille (1) Vitrigel Glass Medium (1) voltage (1) volume (1) walnut shells (1) Wasser glass (1) water jet (1) wavy bead (1) waxing (1) Wayback Machine (1) weave glass (1) weave mold (1) webpage (2) webpage development (1) webpages (1) website (1) weight (1) Weller (1) wet packing (1) wet tile saw (1) Whale Firebird (1) white (1) whiting (2) wholesalers (1) wide heart (1) widget (2) wigwag (1) window (1) window display (1) window glass (1) windows (1) wine bottle (16) wine stopper (1) wordpress (1) woven (1) yellow pages (1) Youghiogheny glass (1) YouTube (85) Zephyr ring saw (1) zinc (2) zinc came (2) zoning (2) Zoozii's (1)
By Harrach Glass ©, 2015. Powered by Blogger.
 

blogger templates | Make Money Online