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Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Kiln slumping wine bottles and other glass bottles for glass art

I found a lot of info online about kiln slumping bottles, so to try something different today, I posted two excellent articles that I found.  Have you ever wondered about labels? Do you want to learn how to remove labels from your bottles or do you want to know how to keep labels on bottles when firing?  Well, I have also found some info on those subjects and posted it below.


Tutorial 1.

Slumping bottles in a kiln is not difficult.  It does, however, require a knowledge of basic kiln-forming principles and an understanding of both thermal shock, annealing, and devitrification.  If you are not familiar with these terms, then spending a few moments with the Warm Glass tutorial will help familiarize you with the process of heating glass in a kiln.

The basic process for slumping a bottle in a kiln is as follows:1.  Clean the bottle thoroughly and allow it to dry.  Some people also apply a devit spray to the bottle to help prevent devitrification.  This is recommended for most blue and amber bottles and is also helpful for other colors as well.
2.  Cover your kiln shelf with either fiber paper or kiln wash.
3.  Lay the bottle in the kiln on it side.  It's not essential, but some people place a piece of wire in the neck to form a wire loop which can be used to hang the bottle after slumping. (20 gauge twisted copper works well.)
4.   Fire the kiln to 1100F and soak for 10 minutes.  The rate of temperature increase should be from around 500 degrees per hour.  Some people fire as fast as 800 degrees per hour, but be aware that the faster you fire the more likely the bottle is to crack from thermal shock.  The purpose of the 10 minute soak is to allow the temperature of the glass to equalize and to all reach 1100F.
5.  Fire the kiln at 250 degrees per hour to 1300F, then fire as fast as your kiln will go to 1475F.  Hold the temperature constant at 1475F until the bottle has slumped to the degree you want.  Usually this takes around 10 minutes.
6.  Cool the kiln to 1100F as fast as possible.  You may need to flash vent the kiln to speed cooling and to help prevent devitrification, but some people slump bottles with flash venting.
7.  Anneal.  Some people accomplish this by simply letting the closed kiln cool naturally.  This approach will work if your kiln cools slowly enough through the annealing range (for bottles, roughly 1050F to 850F).  You would want to cool at a rate of 150 degrees per hour or slower.  If your kiln has a controller, a proper anneal soak is highly recommended:  soak at 1030F for 20-30 min then 100 dph to around 850.
8.  Cool to room temperature.  Most kilns will cool at a slow enough rate to avoid thermal shocking the bottles by cooling too fast.

Tutorial 2.
http://www.bigceramicstore.com/information/Tip92.htm says:


Bottle slumping is becoming quite popular, probably because you don't have to buy special glass, you just re-use wine and beer bottles.  (Make sure you recruit your friends to help you drink all that alcohol!  We know how it feels to look at a really cool Grey Goose vodka bottle and think "How long will it take me to empty that?"  Given how addicting this is, we wouldn't want to be responsible for any irresponsible drinking!)

Basic requirements:

KNBCTrio-Open.jpg (311160 bytes)
You will need a kiln that is able to fire to approximately 1500 degrees For higher.  Any ceramic kiln or glass kiln can be used for this, as long as the bottles fit.  Unfortunately the long shape of bottles make them hard to fit in many kilns.  So we designed the Trio Kiln specifically to fit all our bottle slumping molds.

You need some type of separator between glass and what it sits on.  (The shelf or mold,)  Options are glass separatorMold-EZ or Primo Primer, which are brushed on, or thin-fire or fiber paper.

You will need glass bottles, such as wine bottles, beer bottles, soda bottles, etc.  Wine bottles make nice trays and dishes, beer and soda bottles make great spoon rests.

Molds are an option that can be used to shape slumped bottles into dishes and spoon rests, or you can simply slump bottles flat, directly on the shelf to make trays.

Slump-2bottle-post.JPG (1078522 bytes)
With all slumping, there are general principles that need to be followed:

Bottles must be clean and dry.  All label residue must be removed.  Some people will use isopropyl alcohol to clean any fingerprints from the glass as well.  The best label removal process I have used to date is filling the bottles with very hot water, and placing them in a bucket filled with very hot water and powdered oxy-clean.  Let that soak a couple hours to over-night. Most labels drop off or can be scraped off with a plastic scraper.  I often use those handy fake credit-cards that come in the mail.  Ah, yet more recycling!


Bottles need to be placed on a surface that has been kiln washed or shelf paper such as thin-fire paper can be used.  This is to prevent the glass from fusing to the shelf.  When using kiln wash, be sure the surface is very smooth.  Any brush strokes, bumps, etc. will show up in the glass.  Even seams between sheets of thin-fire paper will show.
If slumping bottles with "painted" labels such as Corona bottles or Belvedere bottles, those labels remain on the bottle even after slumping.  The trick is to have the bottle remain in place during the firing.  Otherwise, the label looks off-center.  I have used small pieces of thin-fire paper to prop a bottle that wants to roll.  Granted these can be seen on the back of the glass, but in my mind that is better than tossing a bottle because the label looks funny.

BelvedereBottle.jpg (286595 bytes)
If using a mold, it should be covered with a thick coat of kiln wash or glass separator.  We offer a variety of mold shapes for slumping bottles. You can also make your own shapes using your own bisque.   I often use smaller triangle shelf posts wrapped in thin-fire paper to create an elevated neck on beer bottles for spoon rests.  They are small enough to allow the top of the bottle to touch the shelf after slumping. 
SlumpwPost.jpg (374151 bytes)
Sometimes glass will get de-vitrify, or get cloudy.  This seems very dependent on the glass the specific bottle was made from.  But we have found that cleaning the bottle really well helps avoid it.  We also have Super Spray, a de-vitrification spray which can be used.

One other thing to consider before firing is whether you plan to hang the tray or spoon rest.  I have found high temp. wire works well and does not break down.  Copper and brass wires will break down a bit, sometimes leaving unattractive flecks in the neck of the bottle.  Simply cut a piece of wire, shape, and place in the opening of the bottle. As the neck slumps, it will permanently fuse the wire into place.  If I want the wire to be gold, I just paint it later.

Decorating your slumped bottles can be a lot of fun too.  You are the artist!  Anything is possible.  You can paint on them with Hues2Fuse non-toxic glass paints prior to firing.  You can fire the bottles on texture molds.  Some people incorporate other pieces of glass, such as marbles, although this can be tricky.  And many people use wire (such as copper) to decorate them after firing.
FIRING PROFILES
As you research slumping bottles, you will learn there are many different firing profiles out there.  Some profiles are provided specifically from the kiln manufacturers, others are a blend of several firing profiles from other artists.  My own profile is a combination of both.  I use a 7cu. electronic controlled kiln and primarily flatten bottles for cheese trays and spoon rests.  The slumping profile that came from the manufacturer did not seem to adequately slump all of the bottles.  Whether the uneven slumping was due the location in the kiln, the type of glass, the size of bottle, the variety of bottles in a single load, or the number of shelves I loaded, I cannot be certain.  Aside from still trying to eradicate a few small bubbles trapped in the body of the bottle, I have had pretty good success.  Generally the firing takes approximately 9 hrs.

Segment Rate degrees F Hold
150050012 min
250075012 min
3600110010 min
4200130020 min
5250147510 mintakes roughly 4.5 hrs to this point
6999911001 hr
750097030 minannealing occurs between 800-1000 deg.
12075020
Let kiln cool naturally.
To give you an idea about different firing profiles, we have also been using this profile for wine bottles, with success, in the Trio Kiln.

SegmentRatedegrees FHold
1500110010 min
225013000 min
3300142510 minat first we had this at 1475 but the edges of the bottle were sharp
Let kiln cool naturally.
This profile does not even have an annealing phase, but we have found it seems to work fine.  If you choose to use this profile, you may consider adding an annealing phase at the end.

Keep in mind these are guidelines, as every kiln will fire a little differently.  It will take a few firings in your own kiln to obtain the results you desire.  Be sure to keep a log so that once you have a successful load, you can duplicate it.  And most importantly have fun with it.

Wishing you the best of luck! - Kris
copyright 2010 BigCeramicStore.com

Check out BigCeramicStore.com to purchase a variety of bottle molds and supplies!


Tutorial 3.


SAVE THAT LABEL!

We all know how frustrating it can be trying to remove some labels from wine bottles. Removing labels used to be quite simple, but new glues have been developed to prevent labels from coming off in restaurant wine buckets. These glues make it difficult to remove the labels at all, but one of the following methods will almost always work.


Several different glues are used today and you can’t tell which one was used by looking at the label. No single technique works every time on every label, but there are some relatively safe bets. First try to peel the label off starting in a corner. If you are lucky and the winery used the new “peel and stick” type of label, the label will come right off (However, it will immediately stick to anything it comes in contact with!). Most times you will not be so lucky.


The Blow-drier Method - Some of the new glues are unaffected by water, but will melt enough to slide the label off the bottle after “toasting” the label with a blow-drier for about 5 minutes. A heat gun will work faster.


The Tape Method - This method separates the layer of the label with the image on it from the layer with the glue. 
We sell a product called Labeloff Label Saver ($8.95) which works 98% of the time. It's a package of clear plastic sheets with an aggresive glue on one side. You must follow the instructions carefully.
Or you can contact the manufacturer directly:
Pentad Group, Inc.
106 Pentad Plaza
1446 N.W. 2nd Ave.
Boca Raton, FL  33432
(561) 362-8678
e-mail: labelsaver@aol.com
You can also do it yourself. Go to any office supply store and buy a roll of clear 3” wide strapping (packing) tape.
1. Cut off two strips of tape that are about 4” wider than the label.
2. Fill the bottle with VERY hot water (trying not to get the label wet). Wipe the bottle dry.
3. Put a strip of paper about 1/2” wide across the sticky side of both ends of the tape so the ends won’t stick to the bottle.
4. Working from one side of the bottle to the other, attach the tape to the bottle so that it just extends (about 1/4”) above the label. Bring the tape across the label, using some type of straight edge to smooth it out as you go.
5. Once you have the first strip in place, if it doesn’t fully cover the label, attach the second strip right under the first.
6. Use the back of a spoon to rub hard all over the label.
7. Starting at one edge, slowly start to peel off the tape.
8. Once the label is removed, trim the edges with a scissors.
The Soaking Method - this is becoming less effective as fewer water-soluble glues are being used.
Equipment: 1 tall Igloo water jug (the picnic kind), tall enough to hold a bottle, Ivory Detergent, paper towels, wax paper, a single edged razor blade, a heavy book, a cork, and a glass of wine.
1. Fill the jug with warm water and 2-3 drops of Ivory Detergent.
2. Fill the wine bottle itself with VERY hot water and immerse it in the jug.
3. After about 30 minutes, the label should either be floating in the jug or loosely clinging to the bottle. If not, continue the soak for 2 hours or overnight.
4. If the label still isn’t off, take the bottle out of the jug and fill it again with very warm water. Cram an old cork into the top and dry the bottle well. Get the label as dry as possible.
5. Lay the bottle on a towel to steady it. Use the single edged razor blade to scrape the label off. Start working from the left side of the label, following the curve of the bottle, to about the middle of the label. Then start from the right side of the label and cut back to the center. Work back and forth until the label is off.
6. Put the label between towels to blot of as much moisture as possible. Be careful! Some of the new glues are of the “peel and stick” variety and will stick to anything. If you find one of these, press the label down on some plain white paper and trim around the label.
7. Place the label on a piece of waxed paper with paper towels on top of it and weight it down with a heavy book until the label dries.
8. The glass of wine? You know what that’s for!


Joel’s Method - Forget the darned label and buy another bottle! 

Tutorial 4.
You can fire some labels, by Harrach glass


If you have a bottle that has a baked on enamel paint for the label the enamel will stay on the bottle as seen in the photo. Some enamels will change color or fade. If the bottle has etching the etching will soften. Some bottles get a soft haze that can not be helped.

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